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Table of Contents

Water

  1. Part I
    1. 1. Definitions
  2. Part II
    1. 2. Registrastion of plumbers and contractors
    2. 3. Local authority to be notified of completion of plumbing work
  3. Part III
    1. 4. Application for water supply
    2. 5. Compulsory water supply
    3. 6. Meters
    4. 7. Computing quantity of water supplied
    5. 8. Testing of water meter
    6. 9. Responsibility for plumbing system
    7. 10. Cutting off water supply
    8. 11. Defect in water or failure in supply
    9. 12. Storage tanks to be maintained at high levels
    10. 13. Waste, misuse or contamination of water
    11. 14. Protection against pollution of water
    12. 15. Public fountains and troughs
    13. 16. Water not to be drawn from place near meter
    14. 17. Pumping and automatic discharging apparatuses
    15. 18. Installation of suitable plumbing system
  4. Part IV
    1. 19. Plumbing system to be installed in accordance with prescribed requirements
    2. 20. Drinking fountains
    3. 21. Hot water cylinders and tanks and flow and return pipes
    4. 22. Storage tanks and cisterns
    5. 23. Connection with drainage system prohibited
    6. 24. Pipes and associated fittings
    7. 25. Supports
    8. 26. Expansion bolts
    9. 27. Access to plumbing system
    10. 28. Electrolytic action
    11. 29. Joints
    12. 30. Connections of water pipes
    13. 31. Bends in pipes
    14. 32. Distribution
    15. 33. Cross connection between different sources of water supply
    16. 34. Prohibited direct connections
    17. 35. Adequancy of water supply
    18. 36. Frost protection
    19. 37. Stop-cocks and full-way valves
    20. 38. Relief valves
    21. 39. Boilers and machinery
    22. 40. Watering troughs
    23. 41. Protection against results of water stoppage
    24. 42. Separate service to flats
    25. 43. Meters
    26. 44. Points of discharge
    27. 45. Taps for domestic and drinking purposes
    28. 46. Depth of cover and position of pipes
    29. 47. Pipes shall not be laid where liable to pollution or excessive corrosion
    30. 48. Alignment and support of water pipes
    31. 49. Water piping trenches
    32. 50. Proximity of plumbing system of electric wires
    33. 51. Stand pipes and other projecting pipes
    34. 52. Stop ends of lead pipes
    35. 53. Storage tanks and cisterns
    36. 54. Hot water apparatus
    37. 55. Cistern in ground
    38. 56. Pressure on plumbing system
  5. Part V – Sundries
Kannaland
South Africa

Water By-law, 2003

The following Provincial Notices is hereby repealed:— P.N. 212/1960— P.N. 337/1997— P.N. 1197/1966— P.N. 1198/1966— P.N. 906/1953The Council adopted the following Water By-Laws:

Part I

1. Definitions

In these regulations, unless inconsistent with the context—"approved" means approved by the local authority;"local authority" means the municipal council;"plumbing system" means a system of pipes and water receptacles (including the necessary fittings) intended for the distribution on any land or premises of water supplied by the local authority direct from its water main;"plumbing work" shall not include the clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in pipes, valves or fittings, or the provision of extra taps or branches to a plumbing system on the consumer’s side of the meter.

Part II

2. Registrastion of plumbers and contractors

(1)No person shall—(a)carry out any plumbing work in connection with the installation, alteration or repair of any water supply system unless he carries out such work—(i)under authority of a licence issued to him by the local authority; or(ii)under the direct and continuous supervision of a person holding such licence; or(b)undertake to carry out any plumbing work in connection with any water supply, sewerage or drainage system connected or intended to be connected with any water main, drain or sewer of the local authority.
(2)An application for a licence or registration shall be made in writing to the local authority and shall contain such particulars of the applicant’s qualifications and experience as the local authority may require.
(3)The local authority may issue such licence or register such applicant if it is satisfied that he is a fit and proper person to be so licensed or registered.
(4)When the local authority refuses to licence or register an applicant it shall furnish him with the reasons for such refusal.
(5)(a)The local authority may cancel a licence or registration if it is satisfied that the person to whom it was issued or applies—(i)has been convicted of an offence under these regulations; or(ii)has done or caused to be done any plumbing work in a negligent or unworkmanlike manner.(b)A person whose licence or registration has been cancelled may appeal against such cancellation to the Premier who may set it aside.
(6)The local authority shall keep a record of the licences issued and registrations effected in terms of this regulation.
(7)No person shall allow any plumbing work undertaken by him, to carried out by any person other than one entitled, in terms of paragraph (a) of sub-regulation (1), to do such work.
(8)Any person who holds a licence to carry out plumbing work or is registered as a contractor to carry out such work, under regulations in force immediately prior to the coming into operation of these regulations, shall be deemed to have been licensed or registered in terms of sub-regulation (1).

3. Local authority to be notified of completion of plumbing work

Every person, other than a person referred to in Regulation 2(1)(a)(ii), who proposes to carry out any plumbing work in connection with the installation, alteration or repair of a plumbing system, shall within 48 hours of commencing such work notify the local authority of his intension, specifying the place where the work was executed. On completion thereof he shall, within 48 hours, likewise notify the local authority of such fact.

Part III

4. Application for water supply

(1)Application in writing for the supply of water shall be made to the local authority.
(2)The local authority may refuse to supply any person with water.
(3)No water shall be supplied to any person unless he has signed the agreement required by the local authority.
(4)such agreement shall be deemed to include the provisions of these regulations.
(5)Such agreement may be terminated by either party giving not less than thirty days written notice to the other of his intention to do so.

5. Compulsory water supply

(1)Whenever in the opinion of the local authority there is not a sufficient supply of good water available on any premises for drinking, domestic or sanitary purposes the local authority may direct the owner of such premises by written notice to install on such premises, within the period fixed in the notice, a plumbing system, as prescribed in the notice, for the purpose of taking a supply of water from the local authority.
(2)Whenever a person fails to comply with a direction given in terms of sub-regulation (1) he shall be guilty of an offence and the local authority may itself at the expense of such person install such plumbing system.
(3)The usual charges, as applicable from time to time, shall be paid to the local authority in respect of water supplied through a plumbing system installed in terms of this regulation.

6. Meters

(1)A meter for recording the quantity of water supplied may be installed by the local authority at its own expense at such point of the plumbing system as it may determine and such meter together with the fittings connected therewith shall remain the property of the local authority and shall at all time be under its sole control.
(2)The local authority may require the person to be supplied with water, to make, at his own expense, such alterations to the plumbing system as may be necessary for the installation of such meter.
(3)The size and type of meter shall be determined by the local authority.
(4)The owner of land or premises on which a meter has been installed by a local authority shall be responsible for the protection of such meter.
(5)The maintenance and repair of such meter shall in so far as wear and tear is concerned be the responsibility of the local authority.
(6)The person being supplied with water shall be responsible for any damage to such meter resulting from his negligence.
(7)The local authority may at any time at its own expense disconnect and remove any meter and affix and substitute any other meter.

7. Computing quantity of water supplied

Where a meter is installed a person shall be deemed to have been supplied with the quantity of water registered by the meter; provided that for the period a meter is out of order the quantity supplied shall be estimated on the basis of the quantity supplied uninterruptedly for the three months nearest to such period, either previous or subsequent thereto, as the local authority may determine.

8. Testing of water meter

(1)Any person to whom water is supplied through a meter may, if he is of opinion that such meter does not register correctly, by written notice request the local authority to test such meter.
(2)Upon receipt of such request the local authority shall arrange for such test.
(3)The person making the request or his representative may be present when the test is carried out.
(4)During the test the water shall flow through the meter at at least two-thirds the normal flow.
(5)Any fee paid with such request shall be refunded if the meter is found to be more than 3 per cent fast.

9. Responsibility for plumbing system

(1)The plumbing system through which water is to be supplied by the local authority to any land or premises from the water main up to and including the meter, or the boundary stopcock in the absence of a meter, shall be installed and maintained by the local authority, in such position and in conformity with such specifications as to the nature, size, and position of the connections and pipes as it may determine.
(2)The remaining portion of the said system, within the boundaries of such land or premises, shall be provided, installed and maintained by the owner of the land or premises.

10. Cutting off water supply

(1)The local authority may, after consultation with the Environmental Health Officer, cut off the water supply to any person who has failed to pay any sum payable in respect of such supply or who has contravened any of these regulations relating to waste, misuse or contamination of water.
(2)The local authority shall give seven days notice of its intention to cut off the water supply in terms of subregulations (1).
(3)The local authority shall not be liable for any damages resulting from any action properly taken under this regulation.

11. Defect in water or failure in supply

The local authority shall not be liable for any damages resulting from a defect in the quality of the water supplied or from a failure to supply water or to supply it at a specified pressure.

12. Storage tanks to be maintained at high levels

No water shall be supplied to premises situated above a level that can be served by the normal pressure from the water main of the local authority unless the owner of such premises provides and maintains in a satisfactory manner a self-contained and automatically-controlled pumping system together with a tank capable of holding not less than half a day’s supply of water for such premises. Such plant and storage tank may be inspected and the water supply from the tank tested chemically and bacteriologically as required by the local authority. The supply of water drawn from the water main to be metered on the suction side of the pumping installation.

13. Waste, misuse or contamination of water

(1)No person shall waste, misuse or contaminate any water supplied by the local authority to any land or premises.
(2)No person to whom water is supplied by the local authority shall allow the plumbing system through which it is supplied to be in such a state of disrepair as to cause a waste, misuse or contamination of such water.
(3)No person in control of land or premises on which there is a plumbing system shall allow any stop-cock attached to such system to be partially closed or allow water to run from such system into a tank or other receptacle at a dribble.
(4)Whenever, in the opinion of the local authority, the plumbing system on any land or premises through which it supplies water is in such a state of disrepair as to cause a waste, misuse or contamination of such water it may direct the owner of such land or premises by written notice to repair such plumbing system and if such owner fails within the period fixed in such notice to repair such plumbing system satisfactorily, it may itself at the expense of the owner concerned effect such repairs.
(5)The local authority may at any time give notice by advertisement in the public Press and in such other manner as it may resolve, of its intension to prohibit or restrict the use of water from its mains for any purpose and during the currency of such prohibition or restriction no person shall use such water in contravention thereof.

14. Protection against pollution of water

No person shall—(a)unless he is a member or employee of the local authority or accompanied by such a member or employee, enter any enclosed land on which there is situated any waterworks belonging wholly or partially to or under the control of the local authority, except with the written permission of such local authority; or(b)bathe, or wash himself or any animal, thing or other matter in water in any such waterworks; or(c)fish in such water without the written permission of the local authority; or(d)throw any rubbish, dirt, filth or other deleterious matter into such water; or(e)discharge or allow any unclean substance to be discharged into such water.

15. Public fountains and troughs

No person shall use the water from—(a)any public fountain installed by the local authority except for drinking at such fountain; or(b)any public trough similarly installed, except for the purpose of watering animals.

16. Water not to be drawn from place near meter

No person shall—(a)draw water from a plumbing system at a point less than two metre from the meter installed by the local authority; or(b)fit a hose pipe directly on to such meter.

17. Pumping and automatic discharging apparatuses

No person shall install—(a)any plumbing or similar apparatus as part of a plumbing system; or(b)any apparatus capable of discharging water automatically, as part of a plumbing system not fitted with a meter, except with the written approval of the local authority.

18. Installation of suitable plumbing system

No water shall be supplied to any land or premises not previously so supplied and no connection shall be made between the local authority’s water main and the plumbing system on such land or premises unless the local authority is satisfied that such plumbing system is suitable for the distribution of the water and complies with the requirements prescribed by these regulations.

Part IV

19. Plumbing system to be installed in accordance with prescribed requirements

(1)No person shall install any plumbing system or alter or add to such system unless the fittings and materials used for such installation, alteration or addition complies with the requirements and are marked, fitted and connected in the manner and position prescribed in this Part.
(2)Whenever a person authorised in terms of Part V of these regulations finds that a plumbing system has since the coming in to operation of these regulations been installed, altered or repaired otherwise than in accordance with the requirements prescribed in this Part he may by written notice direct the person who installed, altered or repaired such system or the owner of the land or premises on which the system is installed to effect such changes to the system or that part of it which has been altered or repaired, as the case may be, as may be necessary to bring it into conformity with the requirements thus prescribed.
(3)Any person dissatisfied with such direction may appeal against it to the local authority who may alter or set it aside.
(4)Whenever a person fails within a reasonable time to comply with any such direction which has not been set aside the local authority may itself, at the expense of the person concerned, effect such changes.

A. Fittings

20. Drinking fountains

Drinking fountains shall be so constructed that they can be fitted separately, and be readily cleaned. The water orifice shall be of the shielded type and shall be above the extreme overflow level of the bowl. Means for regulating the flow of water shall be provide.

21. Hot water cylinders and tanks and flow and return pipes

Hot water cylinders shall be of galvanized mild steel, hard rolled copper or other approved metal. They shall be either double seamed, lap jointed, welded, brazed, or riveted and shall be fitted with screwed bosses for feed, flow and return pipes. Both the top and bottom of cylinders shall be dished.Note: Maximum working head of water shall not exceed 70 percent, test head of cylinder. The working head shall be measured from the bottom of the cylinder to the water level in the supply cistern.

22. Storage tanks and cisterns

Storage tanks or cisterns shall be of an approved pattern and shall be provided with an approved ball-valve; the ball-valve shall be connected to the inlet pipe and secured to the side of the cistern. Every storage tank or cistern shall be properly ventilated and constructed in such a manner as to admit of easy inspection and repair, by the provision of large manholes fitted with approved covers to exclude dust. Each outlet feed pipe from such storage tanks or cisterns whether fixed in the bottom or in the side shall end at least 50 mm above the bottom of the tank or cistern and such outlet pipe shall be controlled by a fullway valve placed in a suitable accessible position. The storage tank or cistern shall be provided with an overflow pipe of such size as to adequately discharge, in the event of overflow occurring, the full volume of water flowing therein; the top of the overflow pipe must be 40 mm from the top of such tank, or cistern, and the inlet ball-valve so adjusted that it will be shut when the water is 50 mm from the top of the overflow pipe, or from the top of the tank or cistern and so as not to become submerged when the tank or cistern is full.All storage tanks or cisterns fixed inside a building shall in addition be set upon a suitable safety tray constructed of corrosion-resistant metal, such tray must project at least 150 mm beyond the outer edge of the tank or cistern and shall have the edges turned up a minimum height of 50mm and shall be provided with a watertight overflow pipe of not less diameter than the overflow pipe from the tank or cistern, and such overflow pipe shall be laid to fall to discharge freely into the open air in such a position that any discharge can be readily seen.All cisterns shall be substantially made and impermeable to water and of a material resistant to the action of water and such as will not pollute water.

23. Connection with drainage system prohibited

A plumbing system shall be connected with a drainage system in such a way as to make the backflow or siphonage of any liquid into the water distribution system possible.

24. Pipes and associated fittings

Water pipes shall be of galvanized steel, drawn lead or copper and shall be free from defects.Threaded fittings shall be of copper, brass, malleable cast iron or galvanized mild steel and shall be of recessed pattern iron or galvanized mild steel and shall be of recessed pattern with smooth interior waterways and with threads tapped out of solid metal. Mild steel and malleable cast iron fittings shall be galvanized both internally and externally.Pipes and fittings which have been used for any purpose other than water distribution shall not be used in a plumbing system.The name and registered trademark of the markers shall be stamped, on all valves and taps.All fittings shall comply with the specifications prescribed by the South African Bureau of Standards.

B. Installation

25. Supports

Strap hangers may be used for all pipes of a diameter up to 50 mm ring hangers shall be used for all pipes of a greater size. Hangers shall be of corrosion resistant metal of heavy pattern and shall be securely attached to the building construction. Pipes, except those laid in the ground, shall be securely fixed at frequent intervals to that portion of the wall or other rigid portion of the structure along which they pass. Watertight joints shall be made at the junction of fitting with walls or floors.

26. Expansion bolts

Connection of wall hangers, pipe supports or fitting settings with masonry, brickwork, stone or concrete backing shall be made with expansion bolts without the use of wooden plugs.

27. Access to plumbing system

(1)Fittings shall be installed free from any enclosing work which would prevent access to the connection thereto, or would prevent effective cleasing thereof. Fittings exposed to possible damage shall be edaquately protected.
(2)Every cistern or tank situated within a roof structure or in any other enclosed position shall be so installed as to readily facilitate maintenance or replacement.

28. Electrolytic action

There shall be no connection between metal pipes and cisterns or tanks of dissimilar metal where, in the opinion of the local authority, such association of dissimilar metals may set up electrolytic action. All parts of the plumbing system shall after installation or repairs be left clean of metal filings, loose solder or other materials liable to cause electrolytic action.

C. Water pipes

29. Joints

If water pipes are constructed of—(a)lead, the joints shall be plumbers’ wiped soldered joints;(b)copper, the joints shall be approved compression joints, flanged or other approved couplings, screwed joints, spigot and socket joints, or brazed or welded joints;(c)cast iron with sockets, the joints shall be made with molten lead run in one pouring or lead wool properly caulked;(d)cast iron with screwed joints, the joints shall be made with galvanized shouldered cast iron, mild steel malleable iron or brass fittings;(e)mild steel, the joints shall be screwed joints with galvanized shouldered cast iron, mild steel, malleable iron or brass fittings.

30. Connections of water pipes

The connection between water pipes shall be made in the manner and with the jointing materials hereinafter prescribed, or otherwise in an approved manner, and with approved materials, and so as to preserve the continuity of the pipe without obstruction, namely:—(a)The connection of a lead pipe with a copper pipe shall be by a plumber’s wiped soldered joint.(b)The connection of a lead pipe with an iron pipe shall be by means of a thimble or flanged ferrule of copper, brass or other suitable alloy connected with the lead pipe by a plumber’s wiped soldered joint, and with the iron pipe, by a joint made with molted lead run in one pouring, or lead wool properly caulked, a screwed joint with a galvanized shouldered cast iron, mild steel or malleable iron socket.(c)The connection of a copper pipe with an iron pipe, shall be by means of a thimble or flanged ferrule of copper, brass or other suitable alloy connected with the copper pipe by approved compression joints or flanged couplings, and with the iron pipe, by a joint made with molted lead run in one pouring, or lead wool properly caulked, a screwed joint with a galvanized shouldered cast iron, mild steel, malleable iron or brass socket.

31. Bends in pipes

Bends or curves in pipes shall be made so as not to diminish or alter the internal diameter of the pipes in any part.

D. Distribution system

32. Distribution

Every plumbing system shall be entirely independent of any other piping system and no connection shall be made or condition permitted whereby any foreign matter might enter such system, whether by gravity, siphonage, leakage or back pressure.

33. Cross connection between different sources of water supply

Water supplied from the water main and water supplied from any other source shall be distributed through systems entirely independent of each other, and any cross connection between such supplies is prohibited.

34. Prohibited direct connections

No plumbing system shall by means of a pipe be connected directly to any water closet, urinal, steam or hot water boiler, closed water heater, trade vessel or apparatus. Every such closet, urinal, steam or hot water boiler, closed water heater, trade vessel or apparatus shall be fed separately and directly from a cistern installed solely for that purpose.

35. Adequancy of water supply

The plumbing system shall be of a sufficient size to permit a continuous flow of water from all outlets at one time. In no case shall any water pipe be allowed the internal diamter which is less than 12,5 mm. Sufficient water shall be available to keep all plumbing fittings in a clean and sanitary condition.

36. Frost protection

Exposed water pipes shall be adequately frost protected by suitable insulative lagging.

37. Stop-cocks and full-way valves

Stop-cocks and fulway valves shall be provided and installed as follows:—Within the boundary and on the property side of the meter where installed.Inside the building to enable shutting off of the supply from every fitting in the building.For each flat or separate family section of the building.For each cistern or valve feeding soil fittings.For each storage tank.For each outlet pipe of each storage tank.By the local authority outside the property and which shall not be used or worked by anyone else, but the local authority.

38. Relief valves

Whenever a check valve, water meter or pressure regulating valve is installed on the water supply pipe, between the street main and a hot water tank, a suitable relief valve shall be installed on the hot water distribution system.

39. Boilers and machinery

No boiler, hydraulic engine or other apparatus liable to cause shock or vibration to any of the water pipes shall take a direct supply from the water main, but shall be supplied from an intermediate suitable tank with the supply controlled by a float valve.

40. Watering troughs

Every pipe supplying water to a watering trough for animals shall be provided with a ball-cock or other equally suitable waste-preventing appliance fixed in a separate compartment, satisfactorily covered and protected.

41. Protection against results of water stoppage

Protection shall be provided in the installation of any device connected with a plumbing system to obviate the possibility of an accident or variation in the quality of the water occurring due to an interruption of the water supply.

42. Separate service to flats

Every building containing flats shall, if the local authority so requires, have a separate service for each floor or flat.

43. Meters

Ameter shall not be encased in concrete, stone or brickwork in such a manner that it cannot be read or entirely removed.

44. Points of discharge

(1)The point of discharge of all pipes must be clearly visible and at least 200 mm above the ground.
(2)No tap, stop-cock or pipe shall be fixed in a position to discharge directly into any drain, pipe or place or in any manner so that the water might run to waste without being noticed.
(3)Overflow pipes must be carried through the outside walls below the caves of the roof and discharge into the open air so as to be clearly visible from outside.

45. Taps for domestic and drinking purposes

Other than those discharging from the hot water system, taps to supply water for domestic or drinking purposes shall be connected to a pipe in the plumbing system at a point before such pipe enters a cistern and shall not be supplied from any cistern; provided that in buildings where a water supply is required above the level at which a regular and adequate supply is available from the water mains, the supply may be taken from a tank or cistern constructed in accordance with these regulations.

46. Depth of cover and position of pipes

(1)Underground pipes shall unless suitably protected from the influence of weather or the risk of injury, be laid at a depth not less than 375 mm below the surface of the ground.
(2)Pipes inside a building shall be sufficiently supported to prevent sag and shall be suitably protected against injury.
(3)Lime shall not be used in building a rebuilding walls round lead pipes.

47. Pipes shall not be laid where liable to pollution or excessive corrosion

(1)No pipe shall, except as herein provided, be laid through, in or into any trough, drain, ash pit, manure hole or other place from which, in the event of any defect or decay or injury to such pipe, the water might be liable to become fouled or to escape without observation, or through any ground containing lime, ashes, salt or acid refuse, or over any unsuitable ground liable to settlement, or through or under concrete.
(2)In any case in which any such trough, drain, ash pit, manure hole or any other place as aforesaid shall be in the unavoidable course of the pipe or pipes, such pipe shall be passed through an exterior pipe or pipes of approved material and satisfactorily jointed.

48. Alignment and support of water pipes

Pipes shall be laid to avoid sags and air pockets and shall be supported in such a manner as to maintain correct alignment.

49. Water piping trenches

Pipes shall not be laid in the same trench as the drainage system, provided that where this is impractical the water piping may be laid on well tamped back-fill at least 300 mm above the top of the drain and at least 300 mm to the side of the centre line of the drain.

50. Proximity of plumbing system of electric wires

(1)No portion of the plumbing system shall be laid, installed or maintained within 300 mm of, or be in metallic contact wit any electric apparatus; provided electrical bonding as required by any regulations for the suppy and use of electrical energy and the wiring of premises shall not be prohibited.
(2)No tap, pipe or other apparatus shall be laid, installed, fixed or maintained within 2 meter of an electrical switch or point.

51. Stand pipes and other projecting pipes

Stand pipes or other pipes projecting above the ground and not otherwise secured to any structure shall be securely fixed to a stake securely driven into the ground, or by other approved means.

52. Stop ends of lead pipes

Wherever a stop end is made in a lead pipe, such stop end shall be properly closed and soldered.

53. Storage tanks and cisterns

(1)When the water pressure from the water main is insufficient to supply fittings which will be in simultaneous operation, the rate of supply shall be supplemented by an approved gravity tank or booster system.
(2)Every steam engine and boiler and all premises dependent upon a continual supply of water for trade purposes shall have a storage tank or cistern installed to hold not less than half a working day’s supply of water for such engine, boiler or premises.

54. Hot water apparatus

(1)A hot water apparatus, except one of the push-through type in which a free water outlet is provided for discharging directly into a basin, sink or bath, shall not be fed directly from the plumbing system, but from a cold water supply cistern of not less than 175 litre capacity and the flow from which shall be controlled by an approved ball-valve.
(2)An expansion pipe shall be carried up and bent down over the cold water supply cistern, or terminate in an approved position in the air outside, where it will not cause damage to the building.
(3)A plug shall be inserted immediately above the bottom of all back boilers so that the system can be drained when necessary.
(4)Approved safety valves shall be fitted in such positions as may be determined by the local authority.
(5)Pipe connectons to the boiler and the hot and cold water cisterns shall be made with boiler or cylinder unions or other approved conections to facilitate the removal of such fittings for repairs or renewal.
(6)The cold feed pipe between the cold water supply cistern and the hot water apparatus shall connect into the cold water supply cistern at a point not more than 50 mm above the bottom of such cistern, and shall not be connected to any other fitting.
(7)The hot water draw-off pipe shall be taken from the top of the hot water storage cylinder or tank.
(8)If a cold water cistern is used to supply both a hot water apparatus and a bath, the cold water suplly to such bath shall not be connected to the cistern at a point lower than one-half the depth of the cistern.

55. Cistern in ground

No cistern buried or installed in the ground shall be used for the storage or reception of water supplied by the local authority and intended for human consumption.

56. Pressure on plumbing system

(1)A plumbing system shall be watertight under a water pressure not less than the maximum pressure under which it is to be used.
(2)All taps, pipes, valves and fittings shall be made to a pressure of 20 kg per cm².

Part V – Sundries

1.The charges payale to the Council for a connection to the Council’s water mains and a reconnection of the supply of water at the request of a consumer, shall be fixed by the Council by special resolution.2.The rental which shall be paid tot the Council in respect of each meter installed in terms of section 6 shall be fixed by the Council by special resolution.3.The charges payable to the Council for the supply of water shall be fixed by the Council by special resolution.4.All charges accrue day by day as the water is consumed, but will as a rule be controlled monthly in accordance with the quantity registered by the meter. All accounts is payable by the 15th day of the month following the month in respect of which the account was rendered. Where a consumer’s account remains unpaid after the 15th. day of the month following in the month in respect of which the account was rendered the supply shall be disconnected subject to the provisions of section 10 and the supply shall only be reconnected after all charges due plus a reconnecton fee as fixed by the Council by special resolution has been paid. Persons supplied with water shall be responsible for obtaining statements of their accounts so as to enable them to pay these within the period specified.5.In the event of any premises not being occupied or used for an unbroken period of one calendar month or longer in any year, the Council may grant exemption from the payment of charges in connection with the supply of water in respect of each completed calendar month during which such premises were not occupied or used; provided that 7 days prior to the date from which the premises became unoccupied or were not used, the Council was notified in writing thereof.6.Every consumer shall when making application for the supply of water, or before reconnection is made of any consumer’s premises, disconnected through non-payment of account, or otherwise, deposit with the Town Treasurer, as security for payment of any charge or charges in respect of or in connection with the supply of water applied for, an amount as fixed by the Council by special resolution. Upon the supply of water being discontinued, such deposit, less any charges due to the Council in respect of such supply shall, upon application by the consumer, be refunded to him.7.No person shall damage, open, alter or in any other manner interfere with a water meter installed in terms of section.8.Any person who contravenes any provision of this by-law shall be guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to a penalty not exceeding R1 000, and in the case of a continuing offence to an additional penalty not exceeding R40 for eah day on which such offence is continued.